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FIRING SUPPORT CENTER
Carbon Burnout

      Materials used in ceramics contain naturally occurring impurities that can affect the color, appearance and maturing temperature of the product.
     Carbon, found in most clays, is normally considered one of these impurities. Carbon can also be present in the additives and binders which make up clay bodies, slips, decals and lustres.

      During heating (firing) the carbon reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide gases. The carbon leaves the body as a gas. Binders are burned off a a relative low temperature: 300 F to 500 F. Naturally occurring carbon in clay burns off (becomes gases) at higher temperatures: up to 1200 F to 1400 F.

The rate at which the carbon burns out is related to:
1) The amount of carbon present.
2) Amount of air available-air provides oxygen for burnout. Air needs to get to the carbon inside the body. This is impacted by several factors.
     A load that is fired very quickly, or on fast, will not allow enough time for the oxygen to react with the carbon, form gases and leave the ware.
     If ware is stacked during the bisque firing, oxygen may not be able to penetrate all surfaces or inside all the pieces.
     If gases are not removed from the kiln and replaced with fresh air, then there may not sufficient oxygen to burn out the carbon. A kiln vent is recommended, not a over the kiln hood.
3) Thickness of the piece.
     Air has to penetrate through the entire thickness of the piece and the gases have to escape the same way. It takes longer for carbon to burn out of a thicker piece of ware.
4) Time and temperature profile during the burn out period.

Both time and temperature are important for proper burn out of the carbon. Some carbons require much higher temperatures than others. Oxidation should be completed below red heat which is around 1400 F.

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MASTER DISTRIBUTORS FOR:
Mayco Colors and Bisque
Duncan Colors and Bisque - I Love to Create
Paragon Kilns     Orton Vents & Cones
Skutt Kilns   Thomas Stuart Wheels
Olympic Kilns
Creative Paradise  Lehman Ceramic Equipment
Royal Brushes   Shimpo Ceramic Equipment
AMACO/Brent Color, Wheels and Slab Rollers

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American Ceramic Supply Company has been selling and servicing ceramic kilns to the ceramic industry, schools, individuals and studios for 40 years. Based in Fort Worth, Texas, American Ceramic Supply Company services and supplies ceramic equipment and supplies to traditional ceramic shops, paint your own pottery studios, ceramic potters, art teachers and art educators, ceramic and pottery finished ware producers, ceramic and pottery home based hobbyists. American Ceramic Supply Company provides education, training and consulting services to traditional ceramic shops, paint your own pottery studios, potters, art teachers and art educators, ceramic and pottery finished ware producers and home based hobbyists. American Ceramic Supply also educates and assists the architects, contractors, builders and electricians for our customers as they create their ceramic shops, paint your own pottery studios, ceramic rooms in their new schools and buildings and in their homes.

American Ceramic Supply Company and American Glass Supply Company sell ceramic kilns including Paragon Kilns, Skutt Kilns, Amaco/Excel Kilns, Cress Kilns and Olympic Kilns. Paragon’s Kilns include the Touch and Fire electric automatic kilns such as the TnF 82, TnF23, TnF24, TnF27 and TnF28’s, the Ovation kilns, Dragon and Super Dragon kilns, Iguana Kilns, Caldera and Clamshell Kilns, Janus kilns, as well as the small kilns such as the SC series kilns, heat treating kilns, doll and porcelain kilns. Skutt kilns include the Kiln Master kiln series - the popular KM818, KM1018, KM1027, KM1218, KM1227-3 and KM1231 kilns, the Glass Master kiln line such as the GM814, GM1014, GM1214 - the very popular GM1414 coffin kiln, and the production glass kiln line - the GM818, GM1018 and the GM1227-3 as well as the Skutt Hot Start Pro Kiln and the new Firebox kilns - Firebox 8 and Firebox 14 including the clamshell kiln GM22. Through American Ceramic Supply Company, Olympic Kilns has fantastic gas and glass kilns, raku kilns, electric - manual and automatic kilns such as the Dual Media Kilns, the Champ kiln, the Freedom Series kilns, the Commercial Electric kilns, and the Torchbearer Gas kilns- both available as propane or natural gas kilns. Olympic also has truck kilns, commercial industrial kilns, custom kilns, DPF Cleaning Kilns and industrial kilns. Amaco kilns and Excel Kilns are very popular kilns with teachers and art educators. Front loading kilns, top-loading kilns, professional kiln line series, Fine Art kilns, Professional Kiln series, and metal enameling kilns are all part of the Amaco kilns and Excel kilns production series. Whether you need a pottery kiln, jewelry kiln, silver art clay kiln, glass fusing kiln, glass slumping kiln, knife heat treating kiln, clay tile production kiln, low fire kiln, high fire kiln, 120V kiln, 240V kiln, 208V kiln or even a 480V kiln! -
American Ceramic Supply Company can provide you with just the kiln for your very special needs and desires to last you for a very long time!

American Ceramic Supply Company continues to sell, service, educate and provide on-going marketing and technical support to the ceramic and pottery industry. Our goals are the best customer service we can possibly offer, generosity of information to our customers so that they can succeed and accomplish their ceramic dreams and desires and
doing the right thing by God and Country.

American Ceramic Supply Company, Inc. - est. 1975
American Glass Supply Co.
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